In designing a polyvalent organisation of matter as architecture, the domain of design is extended beyond current modes of conception and production in order to incorporate more negotiated matter relations that operate within a designed life cycle. Designing Architectural Microclimates: In Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond provides arguments for a geographical history of humanity where social, technological and economic change is heavily influenced by geography. In biology, a unique microclimate frequently results in the adaptation and evolution of distinct plants and animals.
We will be designing architectural microclimates that aim to facilitate creative spatial appropriation. Thus, it results in clean water in the streams emanating from the area, a relatively smooth variation in streamflow during the year, and recharge of groundwater. In human-managed systems, the soil biological activity is influenced by the land use system, plant types and the management practices. Chapter 4 outlines the influence of land management practices.
The environmental and edaphic factors that control the activity of soil biota, and thus the balance between accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in the soil, are described below. Several field studies have shown that temperature is a key factor controlling the rate of decomposition of plant residues. Decomposition normally occurs more rapidly in the tropics than in temperate areas.
Ladd and Amato reported that, despite differences in plant material and climate patterns, the decomposition of leguminous materials in southern Australian sites followed the same pattern as that of ryegrass for sites in Nigeria and the United Kingdom Jenkinson and Ayanaba, , although the time scales were different.
The relatively faster rate of decomposition induced by the continuous warmth in the tropics implies that high equilibrium levels of organic matter are difficult to achieve in tropical agro-ecosystems.
Hence, large annual rates of organic inputs are needed to maintain an adequate labile soil organic matter pool in cultivated soils. Soils in cooler climates commonly have more organic matter because of slower mineralization decomposition rates. Soil organic matter levels commonly increase as mean annual precipitation increases. Conditions of elevated levels of soil moisture result in greater biomass production, which provides more residues, and thus more potential food for soil biota.
Soil biological activity requires air and moisture.
On the other hand, periods of water saturation lead to poor aeration. Most soil organisms need oxygen, and thus a reduction of oxygen in the soil leads to a reduction of the mineralization rate as these organisms become inactive or even die.
Some of the transformation processes become anaerobic, which can lead to damage to plant roots caused by waste products or favourable conditions for disease-causing organisms. Continued production and slow decomposition can lead to very large organic matter contents in soils with long periods of water saturation e.
With the exception of the hyperhumid regions, the climates of vast areas of the humid, subhumid and semi-arid tropics are characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons. In the wet-dry tropics, large amounts of nitrate often occur in the surface soil during the first part of the rainy season Greenland, ; Mueller-Harvey, Juo and Wild , This accelerated nitrogen mineralization caused by a large increase in microbial activity is the result of the first few rains activating the labile soil organic matter.
In these low-input systems, the amount of nitrate present in the soil during the early part of the rainy season is related closely to the organic matter content of the soil.
N availability diminishes during the later part of the rainy season. Thinking About Exhibitions. Bruce W. Mike Mattesi.
Introduction to Cinematography. Tania Hoser.
Museum and Gallery Studies. Rhiannon Mason. Your review has been submitted successfully. Not registered? Forgotten password Please enter your email address below and we'll send you a link to reset your password.
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Lineament: Material, Representation and the Physical Figure in Architectural Production by Gail Peter Borden Paperback $ Michael Meredith and Gail Borden have assembled many of this generation's work and give coherence to this still emerging context. Gail Peter Borden is. Editorial Reviews. Review. "During the past decade a shift occurred that meant that students were often building things rather than modeling them. The first.
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