Two Sides to the Coin: A History of Gold

Sep 13th 12222, Crypto Chartbook
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This is no generic image. Rather it is a reproduction of a specific carving of an 18th century Maori warrior leader called Pukaki, who was a Rangatira Chief of the Ngati Whakaue iwi of Te Arawa in the Rotorua district.

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Coin mintings - F4. This data represents coin ordered during the year, but not necessarily in circulation. Mintage figures quoted are for circulation coin only and do not include collector's sets or individual collector's coins.

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Related to this page Coins. Coin life-cycle. The history of coins in New Zealand. Armistice Day coin. Anzac circulating commemorative coin. Security and counterfeit detection. What to do with damaged or old currency. Collectable coins. The Reserve Bank does not sell collectable coins.

The 3 'sides' of each coin

An article in the Australian Coin Review of July shows a model of the obverse of Australia's new coinage, one that was engraved by Arnold Machin. The Australian dollar divides into cents. The 50 cent coin in numbers. Peoples History is based on largely ignored primary sources and narratives to weave together a picture of how common people experienced and influenced history, rather than leaders or governments. Coins have two sides: an obverse known as heads and a reverse known as tails. About 50 mm in diameter. Without state authority, the miners exert their own justice.

RBNZ museum and education centre. Understand today's economy. Epirus was the north-west area of ancient Greece. It was inhabited by the Greek tribes of the Chaonians, Molossians, and Thesprotians, and home to the sanctuary of Dodona, the oldest ancient Greek oracle, and the most prestigious one after Delphi.

Unified into a single state in BC by the Aeacidae dynasty, Epirus achieved fame during the reign of Pyrrhus of Epirus, whose campaigns against Rome are the origin of the term "Pyrrhic victory". The Aeacid dynasty ended in BC, but Epirus remained a substantial power, unified under the auspices of the Epirote League as a federal state with its own parliament. The coin measures 20mm and weighs 5 grams. Epidamnos-Dyrrhachium, Illyria ca BC. Aristotle's Politics several times draws for examples on the internal government of Epidamnos, which was run as a tight oligarchy that appointed a ruling magistrate.

Tradesmen and craftsmen were excluded from power until internal strife produced a more democratic government. The exiled oligarchs appealed to Corcyra while the democrats enlisted the help of Corinth, initiating a struggle between the two mother cities described by Thucydides as a cause of the Peloponnesian War. Individual trading with the local Illyrians was forbidden at Epidamnos, all business was through the authorized city agent or poletes.

Why do coins have ridges?

In the fourth century BC the city-state was part of the kingdoms of Cassander and Pyrrhus. This is a silver drachm. The coin measures 17mm and weighs 3. Brettian League ca BC. Bruttium was a region in the "toe" of Italy, roughly corresponding to modern Calabria. The name comes from the ancient tribe of Bruttii, who occupied the area before the Greeks colonized it beginning in the 8th century BC. After defeating Pyrrhus, the Romans invaded Bruttium and occupied most of the country.

  • On The Two Sides Of The Coin!
  • Ancient Greece Part II Alexander the Great;
  • Saint-Gaudens double eagle.

This small bronze coin was issued in Bruttium around BC. The reverse features a left facing head of Nike. Zeus has an asterisk like monogram between his legs and there is a cornucopia in the right field. The coin measures 16mm and weighs about 5 grams. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Persia's northeast, then a satrapy province in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now southeastern Turkey, to eastern Persia.

The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce. The Parthians largely adopted the art, architecture, religious beliefs, and royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Persian, Hellenistic, and regional cultures.

For about the first half of its existence, the Arsacid court adopted elements of Greek culture, though it eventually saw a gradual revival of Iranian traditions. This is a silver drachma minted by Sinatruces at Ecbatana in BC. The obverse has a crowned bust facing left, short beard, a pendant at the ear. The reverse has an archer seated right on a throne, holding a bow with the right hand. The coin measures 19mm.

The obverse has a bust facing left, bare head, triple head band, with a bow who falls behind the head, the hair falling on the neck, short and pointed beard, a pendant at the ear. The reverse has an archer seated right on a throne, holding a bow with the right hand, under the bow, an A like monogram. The legend is in blundered Greek by an engraver obviously not fluent in written Greek. Huesca's pre-Roman Iberian name was Bolskan. It was the capital of the Ilergetes, in the north of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the road from Tarraco modern Tarragona and Ilerda modern Lleida to Caesaraugusta modern Zaragoza and fell under Caesaraugusta's jurisdiction.

Pliny alone places the Oscenses in Vescitania, a district mentioned nowhere else. The city's name was rendered as Osca, and was a Roman colony. Phoenician and Greek contact with Spain stretched back to the Seventh Century BC at least; possibly several centuries earlier in the case of the Phoenicians. A lively trade was carried on with the rich mining culture based on the city of Tartessos, but about BC the Carthaginians destroyed Tartessos having already taken control of the Phoenician settlements in Spain.

Carthaginian pre-eminence in southern and eastern Spain lasted until the time of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome. It was from Spain that Hannibal launched his famous invasion of Italy which came so close to destroying the Roman Republic in the infancy of its power. During the Second Century BC, Rome gradually extended her influence into the interior of the country and permitted the Iberian tribes to issue a native currency bearing Iberian legends.

1933 Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle

Two Sides to the Coin: A History of Gold [Adam Wasserman, Marcos Solis] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. For Nature herself makes it. Two Sides to the Coin book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. For Nature herself makes it plain, I think, that gold is produced wi.

This coinage ceased with the provincial reforms carried out in BC. The various civil wars in Spain in the First Century BC saw the temporary revival of bronze issues from certain mints.

It was not until 19BC, in the reign of Augustus, that the whole of the peninsula came under Roman control with the conquest of northwestern Spain. In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Turkey, centered around the Sakarya River. The Phrygians are most famous for their legendary kings of the heroic age of Greek mythology: Gordias whose Gordian Knot would later be untied by Alexander the Great; Midas who turned whatever he touched to gold; and Mygdon who warred with the Amazons.

Phrygian power reached its peak in the late 8th century BC under another, historical king Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled Assyria and Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia.

Two Sides to the Coin: A History of Gold

This later Midas was, however, also the last independent king of Phrygia before its capital Gordium was sacked by Cimmerians around BC. Phrygia then became subject to Lydia, and then successively to Persia, Alexander and his Hellenistic successors, Pergamon, Rome and Byzantium. Phrygians were gradually assimilated into other cultures by the early medieval era. This small bronze coin was minted about BC in Abbaitis. The coin measures 20mm. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League.